Kiwifruit and Metabolic Health
University of Otago, New Zealand
This cross-sectional pilot study aims to determine whether or not there are any differences between the gut microbiota of people with normal glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Specific research objectives are to:
- Define gut microbiota composition associated with normal glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
- Identify dietary associations with gut microbiota composition with particular emphasis on fruit and vegetable intake.
- Establish the feasibility of an intervention study with kiwifruit to favourably alter gut microbiota composition and therefore impact on glucose tolerance.
Participant groups include individuals with normal glucose tolerance, individuals with pre-diabetes and individuals with type 2 diabetes. Information to be collected and planned analyses includes:
- Demographics: Age, gender, ethnicity and education.
- Anthropometric measures: Body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumference.
- Completed four-day weighed food diaries to be analysed for: Amounts of macro and micronutrients and selected foods and food groups, such as fruit and vegetables.
- Fasting blood sample analysed for: Fasting glucose and HbA1c (as measures of glucose control), hormones affecting metabolism, including insulin, leptin and ghrelin, and lipid parameters including cholesterol and triglycerides. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was also measured as a marker of inflammation.
- Faecal samples: Gut microbial composition will be characterised using high throughput DNA sequencing. Analyses will allow comparison, and detection of differences between the study groups.
- Urine samples: Metabolites will be characterised using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS).
Benefits and outcomes include: The relationships between glucose tolerance, dietary intake, gut microbiota characteristics and urine metabolite profiles; and an indication of whether a dietary intervention to alter gut microbiota provides a feasible prospect for type 2 diabetes therapy.